(b. 13 April 1948). 7th Dan, Iwama Shin-Shin Aiki Shuren Kai. B. Fresno, California. Served 16 years in the U. S. Army, 11 in Japan. Taught by Tetsutaka SUGAWARA and Morihiro SAITO. Co-translator of Vols. 3 and 4 of Traditional Aikido authored by Saito. Returned to the U. S. in 1977. Presently operating an Iwama style dojo with an uchideshi program in the Phillippines.