(17 November 1919-8 November 2001). Karateka and martial arts historian. B. in Hawaii. First studied boxing and judo as a boy and later karate in Hawaii. In 1937, pursues university studies in China, and learns tai chi, pa kua and Shorinji-ryu kempo under Ken'ichi Sawai. Relocates to Japan in 1939 where he continues to study under Sawai and also practices karate. From 1945-1952, trains under Kotaro YOSHIDA from whom he learns Daito-ryu aikijujutsu and various kobudo. During same period studies under Gogen Yamaguchi and Masatoshi Oyama. Returns to Hawaii in 1957, and finally relocates to San Francisco in 1959. Establishes the Butokukai International in 1976. Active as an instructor, lecturer and organizer until his death.
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